Terminology and concepts for the characterization of in vivo MR spectroscopy methods and MR spectra: Background and experts' consensus recommendations

Roland Kreis, Vincent Boer, In Young Choi, Cristina Cudalbu, Robin A. de Graaf, Charles Gasparovic, Arend Heerschap, Martin Krššák, Bernard Lanz, Andrew A. Maudsley, Martin Meyerspeer, Jamie Near, Gülin Öz, Stefan Posse, Johannes Slotboom, Melissa Terpstra, Ivan Tkáč, Martin Wilson, Wolfgang Bogner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With a 40-year history of use for in vivo studies, the terminology used to describe the methodology and results of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has grown substantially and is not consistent in many aspects. Given the platform offered by this special issue on advanced MRS methodology, the authors decided to describe many of the implicated terms, to pinpoint differences in their meanings and to suggest specific uses or definitions. This work covers terms used to describe all aspects of MRS, starting from the description of the MR signal and its theoretical basis to acquisition methods, processing and to quantification procedures, as well as terms involved in describing results, for example, those used with regard to aspects of quality, reproducibility or indications of error. The descriptions of the meanings of such terms emerge from the descriptions of the basic concepts involved in MRS methods and examinations. This paper also includes specific suggestions for future use of terms where multiple conventions have emerged or coexisted in the past.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNMR in biomedicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The preparation of this manuscript was in part supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (320030–175984, RK; 310030‐173222/1, CC); the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (grant R01 NS080816, GÖ), the National Institute of Health (NIH) (R01EB016064, AAM), and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) (projects I 1743‐B13, MM and P 30701‐B27, WB). In addition, the Center for Magnetic Resonance (University of Minnesota) Research is supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) grant P41 EB015894 and the Institutional Center Cores for Advanced Neuroimaging award P30 NS076408.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • MR spectroscopic imaging, MR spectroscopy, spectroscopic quantitation, standardization

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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