Texting while driving is risky but common. This study evaluated how texting using a Head-Mounted Display, Google Glass, impacts driving performance. Experienced drivers performed a classic car-following task while using three different interfaces to text: fully manual interaction with a head-down smartphone, vocal interaction with a smartphone, and vocal interaction with Google Glass. Fully manual interaction produced worse driving performance than either of the other interaction methods, leading to more lane excursions and variable vehicle control, and higher workload. Compared to texting vocally with a smartphone, texting using Google Glass produced fewer lane excursions, more braking responses, and lower workload. All forms of texting impaired driving performance compared to undistracted driving. These results imply that the use of Google Glass for texting impairs driving, but its Head-Mounted Display configuration and speech recognition technology may be safer than texting using a smartphone.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the help in data collection and coding from the research assistants, Shelby Huxtable, Fatimah Alghannam, and Jake Ellis and valuable suggestions from Drs. Alex Chaparro, William Horrey and Daniel Simons. The authors would acknowledge to the National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant 71401004 and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the University Transportation Centers program sponsored by Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA).
©2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Car following
- Driver distraction
- Google Glass
- Head-Mounted Display
- Speech recognition
- Texting while driving