The anesthesia-directed sedation service: Models, protocols, and challenges

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Anesthesiologists have made signifi cant contributions to the specialty of pediatric sedation. In 1985, the fi rst sedation guidelines were published by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), with an anesthesiologist as the leading author. Although anesthesiologists may have led the pediatric sedation movements for the fi rst two decades following this AAP publication, over the most recent decade, non-anesthesiologists have begun to replace anesthesiologists in some of the leading roles. In fact, anesthesia-directed sedation models may be on the decline. In 2005, only half of the respondents of a North American survey indicated that they had a formal sedation service. Only 26 % of institution-based sedation services involved either pediatric or general anesthesiologists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPediatric Sedation Outside of the Operating Room
Subtitle of host publicationA Multispecialty International Collaboration, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781493913909
ISBN (Print)9781493913893
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
  • American college of emergency Physicians (ACEP)
  • American college of gastroenterologists
  • American society of anesthesiologists (ASA)
  • Anesthesia physician assistants
  • Anesthesia-directed sedation models
  • Anesthesia-directed sedation service
  • Anesthesiology assistants
  • Body mass index (BMI)
  • Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
  • Certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA)
  • Computer-assisted personalized sedation (CAPS)
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Joint commission
  • Ketamine
  • Monitored anesthesia care
  • Nurse-assisted propofol sedation (NAPS)
  • Objective risk assessment tool for sedation (ORATS)
  • Pentobarbital
  • Propofol
  • Sedation and anesthesia providers (SAP)
  • Texan children's hospital
  • University of Iowa

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