This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding was provided by an endowed chair and research contract, both provided by Medtronic Inc. and the Institute for Engineering in Medicine at the University of Minnesota. The printed 3D model was a gift from Boston Scientific. M Eggen, J Quill, and M Bateman are current full-time employees at Medtronic. J Spencer, S Howard, R Goff, S Quallich, B Howard, and P Iaizzo are supported from a Research Grant with Medtronic. J Spencer, R Goff and S Howard held internships with Medtronic. P Iaizzo is a consultant for Medtronic. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed.
Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- anatomy education
- cardiac anatomy
- cardiac imaging
- device development
- functional anatomy