The Berkeley sample of Type II supernovae: BVRI light curves and spectroscopy of 55 SNe II

T. de Jaeger, W. Zheng, B. E. Stahl, A. V. Filippenko, T. G. Brink, A. Bigley, K. Blanchard, P. K. Blanchard, J. Bradley, S. K. Cargill, C. Casper, S. B. Cenko, S. Channa, B. Y. Choi, K. I. Clubb, B. E. Cobb, D. Cohen, M. de Kouchkovsky, M. Ellison, E. FalconO. D. Fox, K. Fuller, M. Ganeshalingam, C. Gould, M. L. Graham, G. Halevi, K. T. Hayakawa, J. Hestenes, M. P. Hyland, B. Jeffers, N. Joubert, M. T. Kandrashoff, P. L. Kelly, H. Kim, M. Kim, S. Kumar, E. J. Leonard, G. Z. Li, T. B. Lowe, P. Lu, M. Mason, K. J. McAllister, J. C. Mauerhan, M. Modjaz, J. Molloy, D. A. Perley, K. Pina, D. Poznanski, T. W. Ross, I. Shivvers, J. M. Silverman, C. Soler, S. Stegman, S. Taylor, K. Tang, A. Wilkins, Xiaofeng Wang, Xianggao Wang, H. Yuk, S. Yunus, K. D. Zhang

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3 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this work, BVRI light curves of 55 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search programme obtained with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the 1 m Nickel telescope from 2006 to 2018 are presented. Additionally, more than 150 spectra gathered with the 3 m Shane telescope are published. We conduct an analyse of the peak absolute magnitudes, decline rates, and time durations of different phases of the light and colour curves. Typically, our light curves are sampled with a median cadence of 5.5 d for a total of 5093 photometric points. In average, V-band plateau declines with a rate of 1.29 mag (100 d)−1, which is consistent with previously published samples. For each band, the plateau slope correlates with the plateau length and the absolute peak magnitude: SNe II with steeper decline have shorter plateau duration and are brighter. A time-evolution analysis of spectral lines in term of velocities and pseudo-equivalent widths is also presented in this paper. Our spectroscopic sample ranges between 1 and 200 d post-explosion and has a median ejecta expansion velocity at 50 d post-explosion of 6500 km s−1 (H α line) and a standard dispersion of 2000 km s−1. Nebular spectra are in good agreement with theoretical models using a progenitor star having a mass <16M. All the data are available to the community and will help to understand SN II diversity better, and therefore to improve their utility as cosmological distance indicators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2799-2821
Number of pages23
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume490
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. Support for AVF’s supernova group has also been provided by the NSF, Marc J. Staley (BES is a Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellow), the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, Gary and Cynthia Bengier (TdeJ is a Bengier Postdoctoral Fellow), the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). In addition, we greatly appreciate contributions from numerous individuals, including Charles Baxter and Jinee Tao, George and Sharon Bensch Firmin Berta, Marc and Cristina Bensadoun, Frank and Roberta Bliss, Eliza Brown and Hal Candee, Kathy Burck and Gilbert Montoya, Alan and Jane Chew, David and Linda Cornfield, Michael Danylchuk, Jim and Hildy DeFrisco, William and Phyllis Draper, Luke Ellis and Laura Sawczuk, Jim Erbs and Shan Atkins, Alan Eustace and Kathy Kwan, Peter and Robin Frazier David Friedberg, Harvey Glasser, Charles and Gretchen Gooding, Alan Gould and Diane Tokugawa, Thomas and Dana Grogan, Timothy and Judi Hachman Alan and Gladys Hoefer, Charles and Patricia Hunt, Stephen and Catherine Imbler, Adam and Rita Kablanian, Roger and Jody Lawler, Kenneth and Gloria Levy, Peter Maier, DuBose and Nancy Montgomery, Rand Morimoto and Ana Henderson, Sunil Nagaraj and Mary Katherine Stimmler, Peter and Kristan Norvig, James and Marie O’Brient, Emilie and Doug

Funding Information:
The anonymous referee is thanked for their thorough reading of the manuscript, which helped clarify and improve the paper. We are grateful to the staff at Lick Observatory for their expert assistance. KAIT and its ongoing operation were made possible by donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the Hewlett-Packard Company, Auto Scope Corporation, Lick Observatory, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the University of California, the Sylvia & Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. A major upgrade of the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory was made possible through generous gifts from the Heising-Simons Foundation as well as William and Marina Kast. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Funding Information:
Ogden, Paul and Sandra Otellini, Jeanne and Sanford Robertson, Sissy Sailors and Red Conger Stanley and Miriam Schiffman, Thomas and Alison Schneider, Ajay Shah and Lata Krishnan, Alex and Irina Shubat, the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, Mary-Lou Smulders and Nicholas Hodson, Hans Spiller, Alan and Janet Stanford, the Hugh Stuart Center Charitable Trust, Clark and Sharon Winslow, Weldon and Ruth Wood, David and Angie Yancey, and many others. MLG acknowledges support from the DIRAC Institute in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington. The DIRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences, and the Washington Research Foundation. MM is supported by NSF CAREER award AST–1352405, by NSF award AST–1413260, and by a Humboldt Faculty Fellowship. XW is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grants 11325313, 11633002, and 11761141001), and the National Program on Key Research and Development Project (grant 2016YFA0400803). XG is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grant 11673006) and the Guangxi Science Foundation (grants 2016GXNSFFA380006 and 2017AD22006).

Funding Information:
The anonymous referee is thanked for their thorough reading of the manuscript, which helped clarify and improve the paper. We are grateful to the staff at Lick Observatory for their expert assistance. KAIT and its ongoing operation were made possible by donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the Hewlett-Packard Company, Auto Scope Corporation, Lick Observatory, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the University of California, the Sylvia & Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. A major upgrade of the Kast spectrograph on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory was made possible through generous gifts from the Heising-Simons Foundation as well as William and Marina Kast. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. Support for AVF's supernova group has also been provided by the NSF, Marc J. Staley (BES is a Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellow), the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, Gary and Cynthia Bengier (TdeJ is a Bengier Postdoctoral Fellow), the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). In addition, we greatly appreciate contributions from numerous individuals, including Charles Baxter and Jinee Tao, George and Sharon Bensch Firmin Berta, Marc and Cristina Bensadoun, Frank and Roberta Bliss, Eliza Brown and Hal Candee, Kathy Burck and Gilbert Montoya, Alan and Jane Chew, David and Linda Cornfield, Michael Danylchuk, Jim and Hildy DeFrisco, William and Phyllis Draper, Luke Ellis and Laura Sawczuk, Jim Erbs and Shan Atkins, Alan Eustace and Kathy Kwan, Peter and Robin Frazier David Friedberg, Harvey Glasser, Charles and Gretchen Gooding, Alan Gould and Diane Tokugawa, Thomas and Dana Grogan, Timothy and Judi Hachman Alan and Gladys Hoefer, Charles and Patricia Hunt, Stephen and Catherine Imbler, Adam and Rita Kablanian, Roger and Jody Lawler, Kenneth and Gloria Levy, Peter Maier, DuBose and Nancy Montgomery, Rand Morimoto and Ana Henderson, Sunil Nagaraj and Mary Katherine Stimmler, Peter and Kristan Norvig, James and Marie O'Brient, Emilie and Doug Ogden, Paul and Sandra Otellini, Jeanne and Sanford Robertson, Sissy Sailors and Red Conger Stanley and Miriam Schiffman, Thomas and Alison Schneider, Ajay Shah and Lata Krishnan, Alex and Irina Shubat, the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, Mary-Lou Smulders and Nicholas Hodson, Hans Spiller, Alan and Janet Stanford, the Hugh Stuart Center Charitable Trust, Clark and Sharon Winslow, Weldon and Ruth Wood, David and Angie Yancey, and many others. MLG acknowledges support from the DIRAC Institute in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Washington. The DIRAC Institute is supported through generous gifts from the Charles and Lisa Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences, and the Washington Research Foundation. MM is supported by NSF CAREER award AST-1352405, by NSF award AST-1413260, and by a Humboldt Faculty Fellowship. XW is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grants 11325313, 11633002, and 11761141001), and the National Program on Key Research and Development Project (grant 2016YFA0400803). XG is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grant 11673006) and the Guangxi Science Foundation (grants 2016GXNSFFA380006 and 2017AD22006). We thank the following people (mostly U.C. Berkeley undergraduate students) for their effort in taking Lick/Nickel and Lick/Shane data: Carmen Anderson, Iair Arcavi, Aaron Barth, Misty Bentz, Joshua Bloom, Azalee Bostroem, Stanley Brown, Jieun Choi, Nick Choski, Michael Cooper, Louis Desroches, Josh Emery, Matt George, Christopher Griffith, Jenifer Gross, Andrew Halle, Romain Hardy, Deam Hiner, Anthony Khodanian, Robert Kibrick, Michelle Kislak, Io Kleiser, Jason Kong, Daniel Krishnan, Laura Langland Shula, Joel Leja, Brent Macomber, Adam Miller, Shaunak Modak, Robin Mostardi, Yukei Murakami, Andrew Rickter, Frank Serduke, Josh Shiode, Brian Siana, Jackson Sipple, Diamond-Stanic, Thea Steele, Haynes Stephens, Stephen Taylor, Patrick Thrasher, Brad Tucker, Vivian U, Stefano Valenti, Jonelle Walsh, Jeremy Wayland, Dustin Winslow, Diane Wong, Jong-Hak Woo, and Yinan Zhu. This research has made use of the NED, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, NASA under grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, NSF grant AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

Funding Information:
This research has made use of the NED, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, NASA under grant NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, NSF grant AST–1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s)

Keywords

  • Supernovae: general
  • Surveys
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: spectroscopic

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