Transformational catalytic performance in rate and selectivity is obtainable through catalysts that change on the time scale of catalytic turnover frequency. In this work, dynamic catalysts are defined in the context and history of forced and passive dynamic chemical systems, with the classification of unique catalyst behaviors based on temporally relevant linear scaling parameters. The conditions leading to the catalytic rate and selectivity enhancement are described as modifying the local electronic or steric environment of the active site to independently accelerate sequential elementary steps of an overall catalytic cycle. These concepts are related to physical systems and devices that stimulate a catalyst using light, vibrations, strain, and electronic manipulations including electrocatalysis, back-gating of catalyst surfaces, and introduction of surface electric fields via solid electrolytes and ferroelectrics. These catalytic stimuli are then compared for the capability to improve catalysis across some of the most important chemical challenges for energy, materials, and sustainability.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge financial support of the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, a U.S. Department of Energy—Energy Frontier Research Center under Grant DE-SC0001004. Sallye Gathmann acknowledges financial support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant CON-75851, Project 00074041.