Background: Having depression and living in a rural environment have separately been associated with poor diabetes outcomes, but there little is known about the interaction between the 2 risk factors. This study investigates the association of depression and rurality with glycemic control in adults, as well as their interaction. Methods: This is a repeated cross-sectional study with data collected from 2010 to 2017 (n = 1,697,173 patient-year observations), comprising a near-complete census of patients with diabetes in Minnesota. The outcome of interest was glycemic control defined as hemoglobin A1c under 8%. We used a logit model with clinic-level random effects to predict glycemic control as a function of depression, patient rurality, and their interaction, adjusted for differences in observed characteristics of the patient, clinic, and patient’s neighborhood. Results: Having depression was associated with lower probability of achieving glycemic control (P < .001). Although rurality alone had no association with glycemic control, significant interactions existed between depression and rurality. Living in a small rural town mitigated the negative association between depression and glycemic control (P < .001). Conclusion: Although patients with depression had poorer glycemic control, living in a small rural town reduced the negative association between depression and glycemic control.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes And Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R18DK110732. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes And Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Glycated Hemoglobin A
- Logistic Models
- Risk Factors
- Rural Health Services
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural