Abstract: Our objectives were to examine (1) how intense pulsed light (IPL) processing parameters (exposure time and initial temperature) affected aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel of nonfat dry milk, (2) which levels of each parameter produced aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel changes from an untreated control sample, and (3) whether minimal or intense processing conditions produced a noticeable appearance change from the control. Four exposure times (1, 2, 3, and 4 passes through the IPL chamber) and three initial temperatures (25, 30, and 35℃) were studied with untreated milk powder as the control. The samples were prepared as both milk powder and reconstituted milk for sensory evaluation. Using standard evaluating protocols, trained descriptive analysis panelists rated the aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel of these samples. Panelists compared the appearance of the IPL-treated samples that underwent a minimal or intense processing condition to the control by using a two-out-of-five difference test. Increasing the exposure time led to increased intensities of overall flavor, burnt flavor, and umami taste in both milk powder and reconstituted milk, while increasing temperature increased animal and sulfur aromas in reconstituted milk only. Compared to the control, all levels of exposure time at any initial temperature resulted in increased aroma and flavor including cardboard aroma, sulfur aroma, and brothy flavor in both milk powder and reconstituted milk. Only the 4-pass exposure at the initial temperature of 25℃ changed the appearance of milk powder. However, the appearance change was not noticeable in reconstituted milk. Practical Application: The standard evaluation protocols and lexicons provide useful tools for research on milk powder. Additionally, the understanding of critical factors impacting sensory properties will contribute to a better implementation of this decontamination technology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was financially supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture CAP project 1006847 and by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station project #MN‐18‐081.
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- descriptive analysis
- intense pulsed light (IPL)
- nonfat milk powder