The ataxin-1 interacting ubiquitin-like protein (A1Up) contains an amino-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) region, four stress-inducible, heat shock chaperonin-binding motifs (STI1), and an ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) at the carboxyl terminus of A1Up. Although proteins that have both an UbL and UBA domain are thought to play a crucial role in proteasome-mediated activities, few are characterized, except for hHR23A/B. Similar to other UbL-containing proteins, the UbL of A1Up is essential for the interaction of A1Up with the S5a subunit of the 19S proteasome. Importantly, the interaction with the 19S proteasome was disrupted in the presence of the polyglutamine repeat protein, ataxin-1. The UbL domain of A1Up is ubiquitinated by both Lys48. linked and Lys63-linked chains. Intact A1Up is stable, suggesting that ubiquitination of A1Up is important for degradation-independent targeting of A1Up to the 19S proteasome. The UBA domain of A1Up binds polyubiquitin chains and has a role in the stability of A1Up and in the subcellular localization of A1Up. When the UBA domain was deleted, the localization of A1Up was entirely cytoplasmic, and it co-localized with the proteasome. Interestingly, the interaction between A1Up and mutant ataxin-1-(82Q) increased the half-life of A1Up, whereas nonpathogenic wild-type ataxin-1-(30Q) or ataxin-1-(82Q)-A776 did not.