Populations of African ancestry continue to account for a disproportionate burden of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic in the United States. We investigated the effects of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I markers in association with virologic and immunologic control of HIV-1 infection among 338 HIV-1 subtype B-infected African Americans in 2 cohorts: Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) and HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS). One-year treatment-free interval measurements of HIV-1 RNA viral loads and CD4+ T cells were examined both separately and combined to represent 3 categories of HIV-1 disease control (76 controllers, 169 intermediates, and 93 noncontrollers). Certain previously or newly implicated HLA class I alleles (A*32, A*36, A*74, B*14, B*1510, B*3501, B*45, B*53, B*57, Cw*04, Cw*08, Cw*12, and Cw*18) were associated with 1 or more of the endpoints in univariate analyses. After multivariable adjustments for other genetic and nongenetic risk factors of HIV-1 progression, the subset of alleles more strongly or consistently associated with HIV-1 disease control included A*32, A*74, B*14, B*45, B*53, B*57, and Cw*08. Carriage of infrequent HLA-B but not HLA-A alleles was associated with more favorable disease outcomes. Certain HLA class I associations with control of HIV-1 infection cross the boundaries of race and viral subtype, whereas others appear confined within one or the other of those boundaries.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development , with supplemental funding from the National Institutes on Drug Abuse , the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) , the National Institute of Mental Health , and the Health Resources and Services Administration . HERS was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , the National Institute on Drug Abuse , the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research , and the National Institutes of Health Office for Women's Research . This study was also supported in part by NIAID Grant AI41951 (RAK, JT). We are infinitely grateful to all adolescent and women participants of the REACH and HERS cohorts. The Her Study Group consists of Robert S. Klein, MD, from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Ellie Schoenbaum, MD, Julia Arnsten, MD, MPH, Robert D. Burk, MD, Penelope Demas, PhD, and Andrea Howard, MD, MSc, from Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Paula Schuman, MD, Jack Sobel, MD, and Wayne Lancaster, PhD, from the Wayne State University School of Medicine; Anne Rompalo, MD, David Vlahov, PhD, and David Celentano, PhD, from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Charles Carpenter, MD, Kenneth Mayer, MD, Susan Cu-Uvin, MD, Timothy Flanigan, MD, Joseph Hogan, ScD, and Josiah Rich, MD, from the Brown University School of Medicine; Lytt I. Gardner, PhD, Chad Heilig, PhD, Scott D. Holmberg, MD, Denise J. Jamieson, MD, MPH, Janet S. Moore, PhD, and Dawn K. Smith, MD, MPH, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Katherine Davenny, MPH, from the National Institute of Drug Abuse.
- African American
- Allele frequency
- HIV-1 control
- HLA class I