Mesenchymoangioblast (MB) is the earliest precursor for endothelial and mesenchymal cells originating from APLNR + PDGFRα + KDR + mesoderm in human pluripotent stem cell cultures. MBs are identified based on their capacity to form FGF2-dependent compact spheroid colonies in a serum-free semisolid medium. MBs colonies are composed of PDGFRβ + CD271 + EMCN + DLK1 + CD73 − primitive mesenchymal cells which are generated through endothelial/angioblastic intermediates (cores) formed during first 3–4 days of clonogenic cultures. MB-derived primitive mesenchymal cells have potential to differentiate into mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), pericytes, and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we summarize the specification and developmental potential of MBs, emphasize features that distinguish MBs from other mesenchymal progenitors described in the literature and discuss the value of these findings for identifying molecular pathways leading to MSC and vasculogenic cell specification, and developing cellular therapies using MB-derived progeny.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Matthew Raymond for editorial assistance. I.I.S. and A.K are supported by funds from the National Institute of Health (U01HL134655, U01HL099773 and P51 RR000167). I.I.S. is a founding shareholder and consultant for Cynata Therapeutics.
© 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, part of Springer Nature.
- Cardiovascular progenitors
- Embryonic mesenchyme
- Embryonic stem cells
- Human pluripotent stem cells
- Induced pluripotent stem cells
- Mesenchymal stem cells
- Mesoderm development
- Smooth muscles