Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
JENNIFER BACGETTE coauthored this report while a graduate student at the University of Minnesota. ROBERT Y. SHAPIRO is professor of political science and associate director of the Center for the Social Sciences at Columbia University. LAWRENCE R. JACOBS is associate professor of political science at the University of Minnesota. Their research has been supported by a grant from the National Academy of Social Insurance. They thank the academy's staff and especially Pamela Larson and Robert Fnedland for their help, as well as Marianne Ide and Greg Shaw for research assistance. The responsibility for analysis and interpretation belongs to the authors.