Purpose Novel urinary tumor markers for bladder cancer may permit early detection and improved oncologic outcomes but data on use is limited. We sought to identify trends in the application of urinary markers and long-term outcomes of urinary tumor marker use in patients with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Data from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database from 2001 to 2011 were used to identify a cohort of 64,450 patients with bladder cancer who underwent urinary marker testing with UroVysion® fluorescence in situ hybridization, or the NMP22® or BTA Stat® test. We assessed the prevalence of urinary marker testing and urine cytology. Characteristics of patients who did and did not undergo urinary marker testing were analyzed by the chi-square test. Urinary marker testing predictors were analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model and Cox proportional hazards were used to determine unadjusted cancer specific and overall mortality risks. Results The rate of urinary marker testing increased from 17.8% to a peak of 28.2% during the study years (p <0.0001). Predictors of marker use included female gender, younger age and lower Charlson score. Overall and cancer specific survival improved on Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses with urinary marker testing. Conclusions Increased urinary marker testing was documented over all stages and grades of bladder cancer, and in certain patient and provider variables. This increase may have contributed to improved overall and cancer specific survival. Additional investigation is necessary to further characterize this benefit.
- bladder tumor-associated antigen
- in situ hybridization
- nuclear matrix protein 22
- urinary bladder neoplasms