The future of educational technology rests on the ability of educators to interpret and implement sound educational theory into creative and innovative uses of educational technology. Historically, as new technologies are introduced educators have debated their relevance to instructional methodology. They have asked this two part question: "Does technology improve learning?", and if so "By how much?". The purpose of this article is not to answer the question, but to elaborate on it and to offer a view that is at the same time a yes and a no. The problem seems not to be the technology, but the failure of proponents to adequately trace the variables of their respective technology techniques to clearly defined learning processes. This article discusses six basic educational components necessary to trace technology variables directly to specific learning processes. The purpose of this article is not to explain in detail all of the components, but to propose that an answer to the question on technology and improved learning can be done in part by showing the direct linkage of technological variables to specific learning conditions and processes.