Liver transplantation is rapidly emerging as the most effective treatment pathway for a growing number of acute and chronic liver disease states. Indications and contraindications to transplant are undergoing continuous revision and clarification as experience is accrued in the expanding number of treatment centers. For some disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, and chronic active hepatitis with cirrhosis, the role of transplantation in patient management is obvious. For other hepatic diseases such as primary hepatic neoplasm, clear definition of the role of transplantation is likely to await development of improved early diagnostic techniques and more effective chemotherapy regimens. Standardization of the technical aspects of liver transplant and recent advances in graft preservation have led to reduction in the logistical problems that previously plagued this complex therapy. Refinements in immunosuppression with the introduction of cyclosporine and monoclonal antibody therapy have extended chances for survival and contributed to considerable improvement in quality of life following transplant. Further extension of transplantation as a treatment option to individuals with liver disease will require the concerned effort of the primary care or referral physician in the early recognition and management of patients with liver disease.