The Super-Kamiokande detector

S. Fukuda, Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, E. Ichihara, M. Ishitsuka, Y. Itow, T. Kajita, J. Kameda, K. Kaneyuki, S. Kasuga, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Koshio, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, T. Namba, Y. Obayashi, A. OkadaM. Oketa, K. Okumura, T. Oyabu, N. Sakurai, M. Shiozawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Toshito, Y. Totsuka, S. Yamada, S. Desai, M. Earl, J. T. Hong, E. Kearns, M. Masuzawa, M. D. Messier, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, C. W. Walter, W. Wang, K. Scholberg, T. Barszczak, D. Casper, D. W. Liu, W. Gajewski, P. G. Halverson, J. Hsu, W. R. Kropp, S. Mine, L. R. Price, F. Reines, M. Smy, H. W. Sobel, M. R. Vagins, K. S. Ganezer, W. E. Keig, R. W. Ellsworth, S. Tasaka, J. W. Flanagan, A. Kibayashi, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, V. J. Stenger, Y. Hayato, T. Ishii, A. Ichikawa, J. Kanzaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Maruyama, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, A. Sakai, M. Sakuda, O. Sasaki, S. Echigo, T. Iwashita, M. Kohama, A. T. Suzuki, M. Hasegawa, T. Inagaki, I. Kato, H. Maesaka, T. Nakaya, K. Nishikawa, S. Yamamoto, T. J. Haines, B. K. Kim, R. Sanford, R. Svoboda, E. Blaufuss, M. L. Chen, Z. Conner, J. A. Goodman, E. Guillian, G. W. Sullivan, D. Turcan, A. Habig, M. Ackerman, F. Goebel, J. Hill, C. K. Jung, T. Kato, D. Kerr, M. Malek, K. Martens, C. Mauger, C. McGrew, E. Sharkey, B. Viren, C. Yanagisawa, W. Doki, S. Inaba, K. Ito, M. Kirisawa, M. Kitaguchi, C. Mitsuda, K. Miyano, C. Saji, M. Takahata, M. Takahashi, K. Higuchi, Y. Kajiyama, A. Kusano, Y. Nagashima, K. Nitta, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, M. Yoshida, H. I. Kim, S. B. Kim, J. Yoo, H. Okazawa, M. Etoh, K. Fujita, Y. Gando, A. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, S. Hatakeyama, K. Inoue, K. Ishihara, T. Iwamoto, M. Koga, I. Nishiyama, H. Ogawa, J. Shirai, A. Suzuki, T. Takayama, F. Tsushima, M. Koshiba, Y. Ichikawa, T. Hashimoto, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Koike, T. Horiuchi, M. Nemoto, K. Nishijima, H. Takeda, H. Fujiyasu, T. Futagami, H. Ishino, Y. Kanaya, M. Morii, H. Nishihama, H. Nishimura, T. Suzuki, Y. Watanabe, D. Kielczewska, U. Golebiewska, H. G. Berns, S. B. Boyd, R. A. Doyle, J. S. George, A. L. Stachyra, L. L. Wai, R. J. Wilkes, K. K. Young, H. Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

621 Scopus citations

Abstract

Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with net mass 50,000 tons. During the period April, 1996 to July, 2001, Super-Kamiokande I collected 1678 live-days of data, observing neutrinos from the Sun, Earth's atmosphere, and the K2K long-baseline neutrino beam with high efficiency. These data provided crucial information for our current understanding of neutrino oscillations, as well as setting stringent limits on nucleon decay. In this paper, we describe the detector in detail, including its site, configuration, data acquisition equipment, online and offline software, and calibration systems which were used during Super-Kamiokande I.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)418-462
Number of pages45
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume501
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Company. The Super-Kamiokande detector has been built and operated from funds provided by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the US Department of Energy.

Funding Information:
In addition, participation of individual researchers and institutions in the Super-Kamiokande detector construction and operation has been further supported by the funds from: the US National Science Foundation; the US Department of Energy OJI (Outstanding Junior Investigator) Program; the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the University of California; the Research Corporation's Cottrell College Science Award; the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Office of the Vice President of Research; the Polish KBN grant 5P03B06521; and the Korean Research Foundation (BK21) and the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology.

Keywords

  • Cosmic rays
  • K2K
  • Neutrinos
  • Super-Kamiokande
  • Water Cherenkov detector

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