The use of bispectral analysis to monitor outpatient sedation.

N. A. Sandler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The bispectral (BIS) index has been used to interpret partial EEG recordings to predict the level of sedation and loss of consciousness in patients undergoing general anesthesia. The author has evaluated BIS technology in determining the level of sedation in patients undergoing outpatient deep sedation. These experiences are outlined in this review article. Initially, the correlation of the BIS index with traditional subjective patient evaluation using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) scale was performed in 25 subjects. In a second study, the recovery profile of 39 patients where the BIS was used to monitor sedation was compared with a control group where the monitor was not used. A strong positive relationship between the BIS and OAA/S readings was found in the initial subjects. From the recovery study, it appears that use of the BIS monitor may help titrate the level of sedation so that less drugs are used to maintain the desired level of sedation. A trend to earlier return of motor function in BIS-monitored patients was also demonstrated. BIS technology offers an objective, ordinal means of assessing the depth of sedation. This can be invaluable in comparing studies of techniques. The BIS index provides additional information to standard monitoring techniques that helps guide the administration of sedative-hypnotic agents. The trend to earlier return of motor function in BIS-monitored patients warrants further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-83
Number of pages12
JournalAnesthesia progress
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2000

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The use of bispectral analysis to monitor outpatient sedation.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this