Purpose: To compare the agreement of three-dimensional (3D) tumor measurements for therapeutic response assessment of Ewing sarcoma according to the Children's Oncology Group (COG) criteria, one-dimensional (1D) Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and two-dimensional (2D) measurements defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) with tumor volume measurements as the standard of reference and to determine which method correlates best with clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of three institutions. Seventy-four patients (mean age 6 standard deviation, 14.5 years 6 6.5) with newly diagnosed Ewing sarcoma treated at three medical centers were evaluated. Primary tumor size was assessed on pre-and posttreatment magnetic resonance images according to 1D RECIST, 2D WHO, and 3D COG measurements. Tumor responses were compared with the standard of reference (tumor volume) on the basis of RECIST, COG, and WHO therapeutic response thresholds. Agreement between the percentage reduction measurements of the methods was assessed with concordance correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, and Spearman rank correlation. Agreement between therapeutic responses was assessed with Kendall tau and unweighted k statistics. Tumor responses were compared with patient survival by using the log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier plots, and Cox regression. Results: Agreement with the reference standard was significantly better for 3D measurement than for 1D and 2D measurements on the basis of RECIST and COG therapeutic response thresholds (concordance correlation of 0.41, 0.72, and 0.84 for 1D, 2D, and 3D measurements, respectively; P , .0001). Comparison of overall survival of responders and nonresponders demonstrated P values of .4133, .0112, .0032, and .0027 for 1D, 2D, 3D, and volume measurements, respectively, indicating that higher dimensional measurements were significantly better predictors of overall survival. Conclusion: The 3D tumor measurements according to COG are better predictors of therapeutic response of Ewing sarcoma than 1D RECIST or 2D WHO measurements and show a significantly higher correlation with clinical outcomes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Child Health Research Institute at Stanford University and by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant no. R01 HD08112301A1). T.K.S. was supported by a stipend from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Foundation.
© RSNA, 2016.