This work investigates the role of ionic strength during synthesis, reflux, and hydrothermal aging of sol-gel synthesized titanium dioxide. Research presented here uses X-ray diffraction data and Rietveld refinements to quantify anatase, brookite, and rutile phases as functions of synthetic and aging variables. In addition, the Scherrer equation is used to obtain average crystallite sizes for each phase quantified. Results presented in this work demonstrate that the most control over the sol-gel products can be obtained by modifying the pH during hydrolysis. In addition, while varying the ionic strength during reflux and hydrothermal aging can result in enhanced control over the crystalline phase and crystallite size, the most control can be achieved by varying the ionic strength during synthesis. Finally, sol-gel synthesis at low pH (-0.6) and high-chloride concentration (3 M NaCl) produced a heterogeneous sample composed of nanocrystalline anatase (3.8 nm) and rutile (2.9 nm).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Materials Research Bulletin|
|State||Published - Jan 8 2009|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the University of Minnesota and the National Science Foundation (Grants Career-036385 and MRI EAR-0320641) for funding.
- A. Oxides
- B. Sol-gel chemistry
- C. X-ray diffraction
- D. Crystal structure