Top food sources contributing to vitamin D intake and the association of ready-to-eat cereal and breakfast consumption habits to vitamin D intake in Canadians and United States Americans

Kathleen M Hill, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Ann M Albertson, Nandan A Joshi, Connie M Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

UNLABELLED: This study aimed to determine dietary vitamin D intake of U.S. Americans and Canadians and contributions of food sources to total vitamin D intake. Total of 7- or 14-d food intake data were analyzed for vitamin D by a proprietary nutrient assessment methodology that utilized food intake data from the Natl. Eating Trends(®) service, portion size data from NHANES 1999-2004, and nutrient values using the Univ. of Minnesota's Nutrition Data System for Research software. Study participants were 7837 U.S. Americans and 4025 Canadians, ≥2-y-old males and females. The main outcome measures were total dietary vitamin D intake, percent contribution of foods to total vitamin D intake, and vitamin D intake by cereal and breakfast consumption habits. ANOVA was used to determine differences in means or proportions by age and gender and according to breakfast consumption habits. Mean vitamin D intake ranged from 152 to 220 IU/d. Less than 2% of participants in all age groups from the United States and Canada met the 2011 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D from foods. Milk, meat, and fish were the top food sources for vitamin D for both Americans and Canadians. Ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal was a top 10 source of vitamin D for Americans but not Canadians. Vitamin D intake was higher with more frequent RTE cereal and breakfast consumption in both countries, largely attributable to greater milk intake.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Most U.S. Americans and Canadians do not meet the 2011 Inst. of Medicine recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin D for their age groups from foods. Increasing breakfast and cereal consumption may be a useful strategy to increase dietary vitamin D intake to help individuals meet the RDA for vitamin D, particularly by increasing milk intake. However, it is likely that additional food fortification or vitamin D supplementation is required to achieve the RDA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H170-H175
JournalJournal of food science
Volume77
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012

Bibliographical note

© 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Breakfast
  • Canada
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Edible Grain/chemistry
  • Energy Intake
  • Fast Foods
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk/chemistry
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • United States
  • Vitamin D/administration & dosage
  • Vitamins/administration & dosage
  • Young Adult

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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