Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery

Brooke K. Mayer, Lawrence A. Baker, Treavor H. Boyer, Pay Drechsel, Mac Gifford, Munir A. Hanjra, Prathap Parameswaran, Jared Stoltzfus, Paul Westerhoff, Bruce E. Rittmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

207 Scopus citations


Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6606-6620
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 5 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundations Research Coordination Network Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability (RCN-SEES) program, award #1230603. All authors are members of the Phosphorus Sustainability RCN (the P-RCN). Additional support was provided by USAIDs PEER program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Chemical Society.


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