Tower of london performance in healthy adolescents: The development of planning skills and associations with self-reported inattention and impulsivity

Monica Luciana, Paul F. Collins, Elizabeth A. Olson, Ann M. Schissel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Studies have investigated planning skill development using the Tower of London (TOL). Reports conflict regarding maturational trajectories and associations with IQ, other executive functions, and impulsivity. A convenience sample of 9- to 20-year-olds completed the TOL and other measures. TOL accuracy improved until ages 15-17. Digit span backwards (DSB), response inhibition, and IQ were correlated with TOL performance. DSB contributed to TOL accuracy above and beyond age and IQ. Inhibitory control and DSB both contributed to the modulation of planning times across problems. Self-reported inattention and hyperactivity were associated with low performance. Task approaches reflecting planning and psychometric issues are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)461-475
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopmental Neuropsychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Correspondence should be addressed to Monica Luciana, Department of Psychology, 75 East River Road, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. E-mail: This project was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, grant R01DA017843, awarded to Monica Luciana.

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