This study of postmenopausal female smokers (N=94) asked: During short-term smoking abstinence, do the beneficial effects of transdermal nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on acute symptomatology (i.e., withdrawal, cigarette craving, smoking urges, mood, depressive symptoms, motor speed, and reaction time) differ in women who use and do not use hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? Participants were recruited according to HRT and non-HRT use (self-selecting), then randomized within strata to active nicotine or placebo nicotine patch. After 1 baseline week of smoking, participants quit smoking for 2 weeks. Women received cessation counseling and were monitored for abstinence. Dependent measures were collected during five clinic visits. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were run on change scores for dependent variables, with nicotine patch group (active/placebo) and HRT group (HRT/non-HRT) as independent variables and age as a covariate. No interactions were found between HRT and patch condition, but both showed specific effects. During the first abstinent week, women on active nicotine patch (compared with placebo) experienced less severe withdrawal, greater reductions in cigarette cravings, and lower (more favorable) Factor 1 scores on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. During the second abstinent week, women using HRT (compared with the non-HRT group) exhibited better mood (Profile of Mood States scores) and less depression (Beck Depression Inventory scores). These results suggest the following: First, the efficacy of transdermal nicotine replacement is not adversely modified by women's HRT use; second, ovarian hormones might influence women's responses to smoking cessation, and thus should be considered in developing effective strategies for women to quit smoking.