By the acute stage of HIV-1 infection, the immune system already faces daunting challenges. Research on mucosal barriers and the events immediately after heterosexual transmission that precede this acute stage could facilitate the development of effective microbicides and vaccines.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank C. O’Neill and T. Leonard for help with editing and preparing the manuscript and figures, and J.V. Carlis, T. Schacker and P.J. Southern for comments. M.P. is an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation and is supported by grants AI52060, AI40877, HD41752 and AI52048 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. A.T.H. is Regents’ Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Minnesota and is supported by grants CA 79458, AI28246, HD37356, AI48484 and RR00167 from the NIH, and by the University of Minnesota.