Many diploid rose species and cultivars possess valuable traits that can be introgressed into modern tetraploid cultivars. Interspecific, interploidy crosses are possible, but triploid hybrids typically have limited fertility, hindering further breeding and selection. Tetraploidizing diploids before mating with tetraploids can alleviate fertility barriers. The efficiency of trifluralin was investigated for polyploidization of Rosa chinensis minima (2n = 2x = 14) seedlings. Treatments were trifluralin at 0.086% and 0.0086%, colchicine (0.5%), and distilled water and contained 2% dimethyl sulfoxide and a surfactant. Approximately 5 μl of the treatment solution was applied to the apical meristem of seedlings (N = 337, 82-85 per treatment) in the process of cotyledon expansion. Guard cell length, pollen diameter, and root tip squashes of rooted cuttings were used to detect polyploidy in meristematic layer (L)I, LII, and LIII, respectively. Trifluralin (0.086%) was the most effective treatment for polyploidization (LI 20.2%, LII 12.9%, LIII 12.9%), followed by trifluralin (0.0086%) (LI 10.6%, LII 7.1%, LIII 4.7%) and colchicine (LI 2.4%, LII 0%, LIII 0%). Polyploidization consistently occurred from LI inward. Polyploids as a group had reduced pollen stainability and a lower leaflet length to width ratio than diploids. In addition, two diploid seedlings were identified which produce 2n pollen. Considerations in selecting germplasm and generating somatically-induced polyploids from seedlings versus clones for use in breeding are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Ms. Marianne Yoshida for her technical assistance and Dr. Jeffrey H. Gillman and Mr. Chad Giblin for providing resources to grow these roses. This manuscript is Scientific Journal Series No.041210128 of the Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota. This research was supported in part by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station.
- 2n gametes
- Chromosome doubling