Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials

Prashant Nagpal, Nathan C. Lindquist, Sang Hyun Oh, David J. Norris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

640 Scopus citations

Abstract

Surface plasmons are electromagnetic waves that can exist at metal interfaces because of coupling between light and free electrons. Restricted to travel along the interface, these waves can be channeled, concentrated, or otherwise manipulated by surface patterning. However, because surface roughness and other inhomogeneities have so far limited surface-plasmon propagation in real plasmonic devices, simple high-throughput methods are needed to fabricate high-quality patterned metals. We combined template stripping with precisely patterned silicon substrates to obtain ultrasmooth pure metal films with grooves, bumps, pyramids, ridges, and holes. Measured surface-plasmon- propagation lengths on the resulting surfaces approach theoretical values for perfectly flat films. With the use of our method, we demonstrated structures that exhibit Raman scattering enhancements above 107 for sensing applications and multilayer films for optical metamaterials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)594-597
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume325
Issue number5940
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 31 2009

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