Unimpaired attentional disengagement and social orienting in children with autism

Jason Fischer, Kami Koldewyn, Yuhong V. Jiang, Nancy Kanwisher

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    35 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Visual attention is often hypothesized to play a causal role in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because attention shapes perception, learning, and social interaction, early deficits in attention could substantially affect the development of other perceptual and cognitive abilities. Here we test two key attentional phenomena thought to be disrupted in autism: attentional disengagement and social orienting. We find in a free-viewing paradigm that both phenomena are present in high-functioning children with ASD (n = 44, ages 5-12 years) and are identical in magnitude to those in age- and IQ-matched typical children (n = 40). Although these attentional processes may malfunction in other circumstances, our data indicate that high-functioning children with ASD do not suffer from across-the-board disruptions of either attentional disengagement or social orienting. Combined with mounting evidence that other attentional abilities are largely intact, it seems increasingly unlikely that disruptions of core attentional abilities lie at the root of ASD.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)214-223
    Number of pages10
    JournalClinical Psychological Science
    Volume2
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Mar 2014

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This study was supported by funds from the Ellison Medical Foundation awarded to N. Kanwisher, by a grant from the Simons Foundation to the Simons Center for the Social Brain at MIT, and by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Award F32-HD075427 to J. Fischer.

    Keywords

    • ASD
    • Attention
    • Autism
    • Disengage
    • Eye tracking
    • Face perception
    • Free viewing
    • Social attention
    • Social orienting
    • Vision

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