Background: We performed a study to identify differences in the urinary microbiome associated with chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) and compared the urinary microbiome of male and female transplant recipients with CAD. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 67 patients within the Deterioration of Kidney Allograft Function (DeKAF) Genomics cohort at two transplant centers. CAD was defined as a greater than 25% rise in serum creatinine relative to a 3 month post-transplant baseline. Urine samples from patients with and without CAD were analyzed using 16S V4 bacterial ribosomal DNA sequences. Results: Corynebacterium was more prevalent in female and male patients with CAD compared to non-CAD female patients (P = 0.0005). A total 21 distinct Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTUs) were identified as significantly different when comparing CAD and non-CAD patients using Kruskal-Wallis (P < 0.01). A subset analysis of female patients with CAD compared to non-CAD females identified similar differentially abundant OTUs, including the genera Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus (Kruskal-Wallis; P = 0.01; P = 0.004, respectively). Male CAD vs female CAD analysis showed greater abundance of phylum Proteobacteria in males. Conclusion: There were differences in the urinary microbiome when comparing female and male CAD patients with their female non-CAD counterparts and these differences persisted in the subset analysis limited to female patients only.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding information This study was supported in part by NIH/NIAID grants 5U19-AI070119 and 5U01-AI058013. The authors wish to thank the research subjects for their participation in this study. We acknowledge the dedication and hard work of our coordinators at each of the DeKAF Genomics clinical sites: University of Minnesota, Mandi DeGrote, Monica Meyers, Danielle Berglund, and Ashley Roman; Hennepin County Medical Center, Lisa Berndt. We thank J. M. Cecka, PhD for his assistance in analyzing histocompatibility data.
This study was supported in part by NIH/ NIAID grants 5U19‐AI070119 and 5U01‐ AI058013.
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