Experiments were carried out to measure the urinary excretion of free and conjugated malonaldehyde (MDA) and other thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in vitamin E deficient and vitamin E supplemented rats. From both dietary groups, six TBA positive fractions were isolated, in addition to that containing free MDA, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a TSK-GEL G-1000PW column. Three of the fractions isolated were found to be significantly increased in vitamin E deficiency. After acid hydrolysis, only one of the above compounds produced free MDA which indicated the presence of derivatized MDA. Only this fraction exhibited fluorescence at excitation 370 nm and emission 450 nm. The five other fractions formed 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (2,4-DNPH), indicating the presence of carbonyl groups, but the derivatized MDA fraction did not. No significant differences were found in free MDA levels between the vitamin E deficient and the vitamin E supplemented groups.