Use of an inspiratory impedance threshold device on a facemask and endotracheal tube to reduce intrathoracic pressures during the decompression phase of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Patrick Plaisance, Christian Soleil, Keith G. Lurie, Eric Vicaut, Laurent Ducros, Didier Payen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Use of an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) significantly increases coronary perfusion pressures and survival in patients ventilated with an endotracheal tube (ETT) during active compression- decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We tested the hypothesis that the ITD could lower intratracheal pressures when attached to either a facemask or ETT. Methods: An active and sham ITD were randomly applied first to a facemask and then to an ETT during active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 13 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in a randomised, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial. The compression-to-bag-valve ventilation ratio was 15:2. Airway pressures (surrogate for intrathoracic pressure) were measured with a pressure transducer. A sham and an active ITD were used for 1 min each in a randomized order, first on a facemask and then on an ETT. Statistical analyses were made using Friedman's and Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Results: For the primary end point, mean ± SD maximum negative intrathoracic pressures (mm Hg) during the decompression phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were -1.0 ± 0.73 mm Hg with a sham vs. -4.6 ± 3.7 mm Hg with an active ITD on the facemask (p = .003) and -1.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg with a sham ITD vs. -7.3 ± 4.5 mm Hg with an active ITD on an ETT (p = .0009). Decompression phase airway pressures with the facemask and ETT were not statistically different. Conclusions: Use of an active ITD attached to a facemask or an ETT resulted in a significantly lower negative intratracheal pressure during the decompression phase of active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation when compared with controls. Airway pressures will an ITD on either a facemask or ETT were similar. The ITD-facemask combination was practical and enables rapid deployment of this life-saving technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)990-994
Number of pages5
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume33
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2005

Keywords

  • Active compression-decompression
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Emergency medical services
  • Impedance threshold device
  • Ventilation

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