Sweet buttermilk was ultrafiltered at 54°C to approximately 28% TS, 7.2% fat, and 13.6% protein and then added to batch pasteurized (63°C for 30 min) skim milk at 3 or 5% (wt/wt). The 3 and 5% supplemented milks contained 10.9 and 11% TS, 1.6 and 1.7% fat, 3.7 and 3.9% protein, and 0.7 and 0.7% ash, respectively. The control milk was made from skim milk standardized with cream and then batch pasteurized (10.4% TS, 1.4% fat, 3.4% protein, and 0.7% ash). Cheddar cheese was made from five replicate batches of these milks using cooking temperatures of 34°C for the control milk and 38°C for the 3 and 5% supplemented milks; pH values at milling were approximately 5.7, 5.4, and 5.4, respectively. Compositions of cheeses from the three treatments were similar (45% moisture, 16.5% fat, 31.8% protein, and 3.6% ash). Whey from the supplemented milks contained more TS, fat, and protein than whey from the control milk, but protein losses to whey were lower in the 5% supplemented milk than in milk in the other two treatments. Cheese yield per unit weight of milk, corrected for salt and moisture, was approximately 11.3 and 18.8% higher for cheese from the 3 and 5% supplemented milks, respectively, than for cheese from the control milk. At 4 wk, cheeses made with the buttermilk concentrates were softer than the cheese made from the control milk and also had improved body and texture. These differences were smaller at 24 wk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the Minnesota-South Dakota Dairy Foods Research Center for partially funding this project.
- Cheddar cheese
- Reduced fat