Diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer present a difficult clinical problem. Urine cytology with confirmatory cystoscopy form the cornerstone of diagnosis at the present time. The subjectivity and low sensitivity of cytology led to the development of numerous tests as adjuncts to cystoscopy for the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer patients. These tests usually are objective, quantitative (NMP-22, BTA TRAK, BLCA-4, telomerase activity, etc.), or qualitative (BTA Stat and FDP) and have higher sensitivity than cytology, but some have lower specificity. We review the different, new urine-based tests that were developed recently for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with bladder cancer. The advantages and disadvantages of these tests are discussed, as well as their possible future role in the management of patients with bladder cancer.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Techniques in Urology|
|State||Published - Dec 16 1999|
- Bladder cancer
- Urine markers