Using Data-Based Instruction to Support Struggling Elementary Writers

Apryl L. Poch, Abigail A. Allen, Pyung-Gang Jung, Erica S. Lembke, Kristen L. McMaster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Writing is a critical academic and life skill, but many school-age children struggle with the complexity of written expression. Given the importance of writing, there is a clear need for a systematic approach to identifying and supporting struggling writers, including writers with learning and emotional disabilities. One such approach is known as data-based instruction (DBI). This article presents an overview of DBI and guidance on how educators can use the DBI steps with assessment data to inform their classroom writing instruction. Additional resources are shared to support teachers in using DBI with their struggling writers and writers with learning and emotional disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIntervention in School and Clinic
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R324A130144 to the University of Minnesota. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.

Publisher Copyright:
© Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2021.


  • data
  • data-based instruction
  • struggling writers
  • writing


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