Hydrogen and, more recently, ammonia have received worldwide attention as energy storage media. In this work we investigate the economics of using each of these chemicals as well as the two in combination for islanded renewable energy supply systems in 15 American cities representing different climate regions throughout the country. We use an optimal combined capacity planning and scheduling model which minimizes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by determining optimal unit selection and size along with unit commitments, production rates, and storage inventories for each period of system operation. These periods are aggregated from full year hourly resolution data via a consecutive temporal clustering algorithm. Ammonia is generally more economical than hydrogen as a single method of energy storage. Additionally, systems which use both hydrogen and ammonia outperform those which use only one storage option and have LCOE between $0.17/kWh and $0.28/kWh, including full investment in renewable generation infrastructure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy , under Award Number DE-AR0000804 ; and in part by The University of Minnesota Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
- Capacity planning
- Energy storage
- Renewable energy