Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to express their appreciation to DOT/Sun Grant, USDA / DOE , Minnesota Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources , Metropolitan Council Environmental Services , University of Minnesota MNDrive programs , and China Scholarship Council (CSC) for their financial support for this work.
- Municipal solid waste
- Municipal wastewater
- Thermochemicla conversion
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article