The sensitivity and specificity of an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was evaluated in a blind serologic study of a group of disease-free pigs and a group of pigs experimentally infected with intestinal homogenate containing Lawsonia intracellularis organisms. Sixty pigs from the control group were kept in the source farm, and another 60 animals were transferred to an isolation unit and challenged intragastrically. All animals were bled before and 21 days after challenge. Fecal samples were collected on the same dates. The IPMA results were tested for sensitivity and specificity in a 2 × 2 table using the challenged and nonchallenged status as gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for different cutoff points (serum dilutions). Specificities of 100% were obtained for all the serum dilutions tested (1:15, 1:30, 1:60, and 1:120). The sensitivity levels were 90.7%, 88.9%, 81.5%, and 75.9% for the serum dilutions 1:15, 1:30, 1:60, and 1:120, respectively. The sensitivity of the dilution 1:15 was slightly, but not significantly, higher than the dilution currently used as the cutoff point (1:30). Cross-reactivity of the IPMA test was evaluated using sera from pigs experimentally inoculated with Brachyspira pilosicoli and various Campylobacter species. All these samples were negative. Sera samples from 3 porcine proliferative enteropathy known negative populations, 40 growing pigs from 2 commercial farms and a group of 6 cesarean-derived and colostrum-deprived pigs, also tested negative by IPMA. The IPMA serologic test with the cutoff point of 1:30 showed specificity of 100% and sensitivity close to 90% and, therefore, is an appropriate diagnostic lest for herd screening but not for diagnosing PPE on the individual level.