The modulus development of reacting polyurethane foams from modified soy oil (soy polyol) was studied. The reaction and buildup of rheological properties were monitored using vane geometry in a strain-controlled rheometer. Normal force exerted on the vanes by the expanding foam was measured as a function of time to study the phenomenon of cell opening. The effect of foam ingredients and process parameters on the modulus development was investigated. The morphology of the cured foam was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experiments were carried out to elucidate the effect of water and addition of petroleum-based polyol on the modulus development of the reacting foam and the morphology of the cured product. The effect of frequency and thermal history on the modulus development of the reacting foam was also studied. Ozonolysis of soybean oil was carried out to study the effect of adding OH groups on the modulus development during the foaming reaction. Four stages of modulus development, similar to those observed for synthetic polyol (voranol, Aldrich Chemicals) foams, were observed. Increase in water content led to an earlier stiffening of the polymer and a higher modulus. Addition of voranol in soy polyol reduced the liquid foam plateau and significantly reduced the reaction time. Ozonolysis of soy oil led to an earlier phase separation as compared with foams from soy polyol. The temperature at which the foaming reaction takes place dominated the rate of modulus buildup. Higher texture (urea aggregates) and an increase in the cell size were observed with an increase in water content for soy polyol foams. Addition of voranol increased the number of open cells.