Asthma still causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally and minimal improvement has been seen in key outcomes over the last decade despite increasing treatment costs. This review summarizes recent advances in the management of asthma in children and adolescents. It focuses on the need for personalized treatment plans based on heterogenous asthma pathophysiology, the use of the terminology ‘asthma attack’ over exacerbation to instill widespread understanding of severity, and the need for every attack to trigger a structured review and focused strategy. The authors discuss difficulties in diagnosing asthma, accuracy and use of Fractional exhaled nitric oxide both as second line test and as a method to monitor treatment adherence or guide the choice of pharmacotherapy. The authors discuss acute and long-term management of asthma. Asthma treatment goals are to minimize symptom burden, prevent attacks and (where possible) reduce risk and impact of progressive pathophysiology and adverse outcomes. The authors discuss pharmacological management; optimal use of short acting β2 agonists, long acting muscarinic antagonist (tiotropium), use of which is relatively new in pediatrics, allergen specific immunotherapy, biological monoclonal antibody treatment, azalide antibiotic azithromycin, and the use of vitamin D. They also discuss electronic monitoring and adherence devices, direct observation of therapy via mobile device, temperature controlled laminar airflow device, and the importance of considering when symptoms may actually result from dysfunctional breathing rather than asthma.
- Biological monoclonal antibody treatment
- Recent advance
- Temperature controlled laminar airflow device