Mouse xenotropic and polytropic leukemia viruses (XMVs and PMVs) are closely related gammaretroviruses that use the XPR1 receptor for entry. To identify amino acid residues in XPR1 important for virus entry, we tested mouse cells derived from evolutionarily divergent species for susceptibility to prototypical PMVs, XMVs, and the wild mouse isolate CasE#1. CasE#1 has a variant XMV/PMV host range, and sequence analysis of the CasE#1 env gene identifies segments related to PMVs and XMVs. Cells from the Asian mouse species Mus pahari show a unique pattern of susceptibility to these three viruses; these cells are susceptible to XMVs and CasE#1 but are resistant to PMVs, whereas NIH 3T3 cells show the reciprocal pattern, susceptibility to only PMVs. The M. pahari XPR1 gene differs from that of NIH 3T3 in the two extracellular loops (ECLs) previously shown to mediate virus entry (M. Marin, C. S. Tailor, A. Nouri, S. L. Kozak, and D. Kabat, J. Virol. 73:9362-9368, 1999, and N. S. Van Hoeven and A. D. Miller, Retrovirology 2:76, 2005). Using transfected hamster cells expressing chimeric and mutated XPR1s, we demonstrated that the susceptibility differences between NIH 3T3 and M. pahari cells are receptor mediated, that PMV entry requires residues in ECL3, that the CasE#1 entry determinant is in ECL4, and that determinants for XMV entry are in both ECL3 and ECL4. Additional substitutions in ECL3 and ECL4 modulate virus susceptibility and suggest that ECL3 and ECL4 may contribute to the formation of a single virus receptor site. The position of M. pahari at the base of the Mus phylogenetic tree indicates that XPR1-mediated susceptibility to XMVs is the ancestral type in this genus and that the phenotypic variants of mouse XPR1 likely arose in conjunction with exposure to gamma-retrovirus infections and coevolutionary adaptations in the viral envelope.