Aerobic organisms have devised several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism. To combat such stress, cells induce ROS scavenging enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase. In the present research, we have used a double staining technique of SOD and catalase enzymes in the same polyacrylamide gel to analyze the different antioxidant enzymatic activities and protein isoforms present in Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Moreover, we used a technique to differentially detect Sod1p and Sod2p on gel by immersion in NaCN, which specifically inhibits the Sod1p isoform. We observed unique SOD and catalase zymogram profiles for all the analyzed yeasts and we propose this technique as a new approach for Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains differentiation. In addition, we observed functional correlations between SOD and catalase enzyme activities, accumulation of essential metabolites, such as glutathione and trehalose, and the fermentative performance of different yeasts strains with industrial relevance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments We are grateful to Lallemand SL for transferring of non-commercial strains from their collection, and to Dr. A. Querol for the gift of the S. kudriavzevii, the S. paradoxus and the S. c×S. k hybrid strains. This work has been supported by grants AGL2008-00060 and AGL2011-24353 from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (MEC) to E.M, and it has been performed within the Programme VLC/Campus, Microcluster IViSoCa (Innovation for a Sustainable Viticulture and Quality), and Microcluster BBLM (Model Yeasts in Biomedicine & Biotechnology). E.G.-S. is a predoctoral fellow of the JAE program from the CSIC (Spanish National Research Council). R.G.-P. was a predoctoral fellow of the I3P program from the CSIC.
- Fermentative capacity
- Superoxide dismutase