A rat cDNA clone encoding a portion of phosphate-activated glutaminase was used to identify DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in sets of somatic cell hybrids and between wild-derived and inbred strains of mice. Segregation of rat and mouse chromosomes among somatic cell hybrids indicated assignment to rat chromosome 9 and mouse chromosome 1. Analysis of chromosome 1 alleles for several genes in an interspecific cross between Mus spretus and C3H HeJ- gld gld mice indicates that glutaminase can be positioned within 5.5 ± 2.0 cM proximal to Ctla-4. Similarly, human-hamster somatic cell hybrids were examined for RFLPs, and four human EcoRI restriction fragments were found to hybridize with the rat glutaminase probe. Two of these restriction fragments cosegregated and mapped to human chromosome 2 in a region that is syntenic with mouse chromosome 1 and rat chromosome 9.