Extracurricular activity participation is linked to positive development, but it is also a setting for inequality. Using a quarter century of data from Monitoring the Future (N = 593,979; 51% female; 65% non-Hispanic white; 13% non-Hispanic black; 12% Hispanic; 4% non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander; 7% other race), this article documents patterns and trends in school-based extracurricular participation by race, social class, gender, and age, and their links to academic and substance use outcomes. Findings reveal differences by race and confirm a division by social class that has worsened over time. Further, girls are gaining on boys and surpass them in some types of school-based activities. Participation is linked to better academic outcomes and less substance use, affirming the importance of redressing the inequalities revealed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding Funding for research assistance was provided by: (1) a Grant-in-Aid to Ann Meier from the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota; (2) a Proposal Development Pilot Grant to Ann Meier from the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota; and (3) an Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program Grant to Benjamin Hartmann from the Office of Undergraduate Research at the University of Minnesota.
Acknowledgements This work was made possible through a Grant-in-Aid from the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota and a proposal development grant from the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota. The authors wish to thank the research team from the KIDS Projects (Kids Involvement and Diversity Study) for helpful feedback on earlier drafts, especially Doug Hartmann and Teresa Swartz.
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- Extracurricular Activities
- Social Class