A novel type of stationary phase selectivity classification "triangle" has been developed based on the Snyder-Dolan (S-D) Hydrophobic-Subtraction Model, wherein the apices of a set of four triangles represent the relative contributions of steric hindrance (χS), hydrogen-bonding acidity (χA), hydrogen-bonding basicity (χB), cation-exchange capacity (χC) to selectivity. We found that "effective selectivity" of a stationary phase is mathematically given by the ratio of system dependent interaction coefficients but not their absolute values. Thus by normalizing the S*, A, B and C terms of the S-D model by H, we were able to obtain four parameters which fully define the chromatographic selectivity of the stationary phases. By examining the parameters in groups of three, we can represent all the result in a set of four "selectivity triangles". The distinctive feature of this approach compared to the S-D phase classification scheme is that it allows the visualization of column selectivity by plotting three-dimensional data in a two-dimensional space. Moreover, it very clearly shows that the RPLC columns thus far characterized cover only a small fraction of separation selectivity space leaving a great deal of room for researchers to develop novel RPC materials. Various applications of these "selectivity triangles" will be discussed in this paper.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the National Institutes of Health (GM 054585) for financial support and Agilent Technologies Inc. (Wilmington, DE, USA) and Supelco Analytical (Bellefonte, PA, USA) for donation of various stationary phases. We thank Dr. Lloyd R. Snyder for his many insightful discussions and comments.
- Classification scheme
- Reversed phase
- Stationary phase