Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a category of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis. The best characterized ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Acute exacerbation of IPF is a dreaded occurrence with grim prognosis and suboptimal treatment options. There have been recent reports that acute exacerbation can occur in other ILDs (AE-ILD). Of note, some of these acute exacerbations follow lung procedures. This review summarizes the available information on AE-ILD and discusses the procedures reported to cause AE-ILD. We also discuss proposed mechanisms, risk factors, treatment and prognosis. This review should help to inform decision-making about risks versus benefits of procedures that are commonly recommended to diagnose ILD.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd
- Acute exacerbation
- Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease
- Interstitial lung disease
- Lung biopsy