Hugoniots of lower mantle mineral compositions are sensitive to the conditions where they cross phase boundaries including both polymorphic phase transitions and partial to complete melting. For SiO2, the Hugoniot of fused silica passes from stishovite to partial melt (73 GPa, 4600 K) whereas the Hugoniot of crystal quartz passes from CaCi2 structure to partial melt (116 GPa, 4900 K). For Mg2SiO4, the forsterite Hugoniot passes from the periclase +MgSiO3 (perovskite) assemblage to melt before 152 GPa and 4300 K, whereas the wadsleyite Hugoniot transforms first to periclase +MgSiO3 (post-perovskite) and then melts at 151 GPa and 4160 K. Shock states achieved from crystal enstatite are molten above 160 GPa. High-pressure Gruüneisen parameters for molten states of MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 increase markedly with compression, going from 0.5 to 1.6 over the 0 to 135 GPa range. This gives rise to a very large (>2000 K) isentropic rise in temperature with depth in thermal models of a primordial deep magma ocean within the Earth. These magma ocean isentropes lead to models that have crystallization initiating at mid-lower mantle depths. Such models are consistent with the suggestion that the present ultra-low velocity zones, at the base of the lowermost mantle, represent a dynamically stable, partially molten remnant of the primordial magma ocean. The new shock melting data for silicates support a model of the primordial magma ocean that is concordant with the Berkeley-Caltech iron core model  for the temperature at the center of the Earth.