Inflammation as a major defense mechanism against pathogens is modulated by diverse microbial products. A variety of plant and microbial products interacting with Toll-like receptors initiate a wide spectrum of responses from phagocytosis to cytokine production, which modulates inflammation. Jasmonates are fatty acid-derived cyclopentanones produced by plants and lower eukaryotes that play an important role in the defense against insects. In this study, we are set up to define the molecular targets of J2 action. While the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of macrophage cell line RAW264.7 induced TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 that were associated with an increase in miR-155 and miR-146a, the J2 suppressed the induction of these inflammatory cytokines and enzymes as well as miR-155 in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the associations of miR-155 with inflammatory markers, we overexpressed miR-155 and found attenuation of COX-2 suppression with J2 treatment. Furthermore, J2 inhibited NF-κB, p65, and IκB but had no or only minimal effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that J2 suppresses LPS stimulation of RAW264.7 cells by targeting NF-κB pathways.
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Acknowledgments This work was supported by the research grant of the Jeju National University in 2008.
- NF-κB pathway