Because of the developing resistance of Mycobacterium species against currently available anti-mycobacterial drugs, there is an urgent need for new drug development. In this study, we have evaluated the in vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of Plumeria bicolor extract and its phytoconstituents - plumericin and isoplumericin against multi-drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The in vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of chloroform extract of P. bicolor, plumericin and isoplumericin were tested against M. tuberculosis (H37Rv) and four multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using MTT (Tetrazolium bromide [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide]) assay. The extract and both compounds were further evaluated by standard assay procedures to determine their minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Cytotoxicity of these compounds was performed against J774G8 murine macrophage cell lines. The activity was represented in the mean (±SD) of duplicate samples from three independent assays. Results: Plumericin showed better activity against pan sensitive as well as four MDR strains of M. tuberculosis with MIC values of 2.1 ± 0.12, 1.3 ± 0.15, 2.0 ± 0.07, 1.5 ± 0.13 & 2.0 ± 0.14 μg/mL and MBC values of 3.6 ± 0.22, 2.5 ± 0.18, 3.8 ± 0.27, 2.9 ± 0.20 & 3.7 ± 0.32 μg/mL than isoplumericin, respectively. Interestingly, both isolated active compounds showed an advantage over rifampicin (80 times) and isoniazid (8 times) by being highly active against the MDR strains. The extract and both compounds were found to be non-toxic against J774G8 macrophages up to the used concentrations. Conclusion: Plumericin showed more potent activity than isoplumericin. The excellent activity of these compounds against MDR strains opens a possibility of obtaining new anti-mycobacterial drug candidate in near future.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & F.W., Government of India , to SS.