Salmonella enterica is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, Salmonella colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. The emergence of several Salmonella serotypes resistant to multiple antibiotics in food animals underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discuss the various antibiotic-resistant Salmonella serotypes in food animals and the food supply, factors that contributed to their emergence, their antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the public health implications of their spread through the food supply, and the potential antibiotic alternatives for controlling them.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Hatch Project support (#MIN-16-120; Accession#1016910) to AKJ at the University of Minnesota that covered the publication costs of this review.
- Antibiotic alternatives
- Antibiotic resistant
- Food supply