Objectives. We assessed whether markers of acculturation (birthplace and number of US generations) and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease - carotid artery plaque, internal carotid intima-media thickness, and albuminuria - in 4 racial/ethnic groups. Methods. With data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n=6716 participants aged 45-84 years)and race-specific binomial regression models, we computed prevalence ratios adjusted for demographics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results. The adjusted US- to foreign-born prevalence ratio for carotid plaque was 1.20 (99% confidence interval [CI]=0.97, 1.39) among Whites, 1.91 (99% CI=0.94, 2.94) among Chinese, 1.62 (99% CI=1.28, 2.06) among Blacks, and 1.23 (99% CI=1.15, 1.31) among Hispanics. Greater carotid plaque prevalence was found among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics with a greater number of generations with US residence (P<.001) and among Whites with less education and among Blacks with lower incomes. Similar associations were observed with intima-media thickness. There was also evidence of an inverse association between albuminuria and SES among Whites and Hispanics. Conclusions. Greater US acculturation and lower SES were associated with a higher prevalence of carotid plaque and greater intima-media thickness but not with albuminuria. Maintenance of healthful habits among recent immigrants should be encouraged.