BioTIME: A database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene

Maria Dornelas, Laura H. Antão, Faye Moyes, Amanda E. Bates, Anne E. Magurran, Dušan Adam, Asem A. Akhmetzhanova, Ward Appeltans, José Manuel Arcos, Haley Arnold, Narayanan Ayyappan, Gal Badihi, Andrew H. Baird, Miguel Barbosa, Tiago Egydio Barreto, Claus Bässler, Alecia Bellgrove, Jonathan Belmaker, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, Brian J. BettAnne D. Bjorkman, Magdalena Błażewicz, Shane A. Blowes, Christopher P. Bloch, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Susan Boyd, Matt Bradford, Andrew J. Brooks, James H. Brown, Helge Bruelheide, Phaedra Budy, Fernando Carvalho, Edward Castañeda-Moya, Chaolun Allen Chen, John F. Chamblee, Tory J. Chase, Laura Siegwart Collier, Sharon K. Collinge, Richard Condit, Elisabeth J. Cooper, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Unai Cotano, Shannan Kyle Crow, Gabriella Damasceno, Claire H. Davies, Robert A. Davis, Frank P. Day, Steven Degraer, Tim S. Doherty, Timothy E. Dunn, Giselda Durigan, J. Emmett Duffy, Dor Edelist, Graham J. Edgar, Robin Elahi, Sarah C. Elmendorf, Anders Enemar, S. K.Morgan Ernest, Rubén Escribano, Marc Estiarte, Brian S. Evans, Tung Yung Fan, Fabiano Turini Farah, Luiz Loureiro Fernandes, Fábio Z. Farneda, Alessandra Fidelis, Robert Fitt, Anna Maria Fosaa, Geraldo Antonio Daher Correa Franco, Grace E. Frank, William R. Fraser, Hernando García, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Or Givan, Elizabeth Gorgone-Barbosa, William A. Gould, Corinna Gries, Gary D. Grossman, Julio R. Gutierréz, Stephen Hale, Mark E. Harmon, John Harte, Gary Haskins, Donald L. Henshaw, Luise Hermanutz, Pamela Hidalgo, Pedro Higuchi, Andrew Hoey, Gert Van Hoey, Annika Hofgaard, Kristen Holeck, Robert D. Hollister, Richard Holmes, Mia Hoogenboom, Chih hao Hsieh, Stephen P. Hubbell, Falk Huettmann, Christine L. Huffard, Allen H. Hurlbert, Natália Macedo Ivanauskas, David Janík, Ute Jandt, Anna Jażdżewska, Tore Johannessen, Jill Johnstone, Julia Jones, Faith A.M. Jones, Jungwon Kang, Tasrif Kartawijaya, Erin C. Keeley, Douglas A. Kelt, Rebecca Kinnear, Kari Klanderud, Halvor Knutsen, Christopher C. Koenig, Alessandra R. Kortz, Kamil Král, Linda A. Kuhnz, Chao Yang Kuo, David J. Kushner, Claire Laguionie-Marchais, Lesley T. Lancaster, Cheol Min Lee, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Esther Lévesque, David Lightfoot, Francisco Lloret, John D. Lloyd, Adrià López-Baucells, Maite Louzao, Joshua S. Madin, Borgþór Magnússon, Shahar Malamud, Iain Matthews, Kent P. McFarland, Brian McGill, Diane McKnight, William O. McLarney, Jason Meador, Peter L. Meserve, Daniel J. Metcalfe, Christoph F.J. Meyer, Anders Michelsen, Nataliya Milchakova, Tom Moens, Even Moland, Jon Moore, Carolina Mathias Moreira, Jörg Müller, Grace Murphy, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Randall W. Myster, Andrew Naumov, Francis Neat, James A. Nelson, Michael Paul Nelson, Stephen F. Newton, Natalia Norden, Jeffrey C. Oliver, Esben M. Olsen, Vladimir G. Onipchenko, Krzysztof Pabis, Robert J. Pabst, Alain Paquette, Sinta Pardede, David M. Paterson, Raphaël Pélissier, Josep Peñuelas, Alejandro Pérez-Matus, Oscar Pizarro, Francesco Pomati, Eric Post, Herbert H.T. Prins, John C. Priscu, Pieter Provoost, Kathleen L. Prudic, Erkki Pulliainen, B. R. Ramesh, Olivia Mendivil Ramos, Andrew Rassweiler, Jose Eduardo Rebelo, Daniel C. Reed, Peter B Reich, Suzanne M. Remillard, Anthony J. Richardson, J. Paul Richardson, Itai van Rijn, Ricardo Rocha, Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Christian Rixen, Kevin P. Robinson, Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Denise de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres, Lars Rudstam, Henry Ruhl, Catalina S. Ruz, Erica M. Sampaio, Nancy Rybicki, Andrew Rypel, Sofia Sal, Beatriz Salgado, Flavio A.M. Santos, Ana Paula Savassi-Coutinho, Sara Scanga, Jochen Schmidt, Robert Schooley, Fakhrizal Setiawan, Kwang Tsao Shao, Gaius R. Shaver, Sally Sherman, Thomas W. Sherry, Jacek Siciński, Caya Sievers, Ana Carolina da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues da Silva, Fabio L. Silveira, Jasper Slingsby, Tracey Smart, Sara J. Snell, Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia, Gabriel B.G. Souza, Flaviana Maluf Souza, Vinícius Castro Souza, Christopher D. Stallings, Rowan Stanforth, Emily H. Stanley, José Mauro Sterza, Maarten Stevens, Rick Stuart-Smith, Yzel Rondon Suarez, Sarah Supp, Jorge Yoshio Tamashiro, Sukmaraharja Tarigan, Gary P. Thiede, Simon Thorn, Anne Tolvanen, Maria Teresa Zugliani Toniato, Ørjan Totland, Robert R. Twilley, Gediminas Vaitkus, Nelson Valdivia, Martha Isabel Vallejo, Thomas J. Valone, Carl Van Colen, Jan Vanaverbeke, Fabio Venturoli, Hans M. Verheye, Marcelo Vianna, Rui P. Vieira, Tomáš Vrška, Con Quang Vu, Lien Van Vu, Robert B. Waide, Conor Waldock, Dave Watts, Sara Webb, Tomasz Wesołowski, Ethan P. White, Claire E. Widdicombe, Dustin Wilgers, Richard Williams, Stefan B. Williams, Mark Williamson, Michael R. Willig, Trevor J. Willis, Sonja Wipf, Kerry D. Woods, Eric J. Woehler, Kyle Zawada, Michael L. Zettler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Motivation: The BioTIME database contains raw data on species identities and abundances in ecological assemblages through time. These data enable users to calculate temporal trends in biodiversity within and amongst assemblages using a broad range of metrics. BioTIME is being developed as a community-led open-source database of biodiversity time series. Our goal is to accelerate and facilitate quantitative analysis of temporal patterns of biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Main types of variables included: The database contains 8,777,413 species abundance records, from assemblages consistently sampled for a minimum of 2 years, which need not necessarily be consecutive. In addition, the database contains metadata relating to sampling methodology and contextual information about each record. Spatial location and grain: BioTIME is a global database of 547,161 unique sampling locations spanning the marine, freshwater and terrestrial realms. Grain size varies across datasets from 0.0000000158 km2 (158 cm2) to 100 km2 (1,000,000,000,000 cm2). Time period and grain: BioTIME records span from 1874 to 2016. The minimal temporal grain across all datasets in BioTIME is a year. Major taxa and level of measurement: BioTIME includes data from 44,440 species across the plant and animal kingdoms, ranging from plants, plankton and terrestrial invertebrates to small and large vertebrates. Software format:.csv and.SQL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)760-786
Number of pages27
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume27
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
European Research Council and EU: A.E.M., M.D. and F.M. are grateful for the support of the ERC grants BioTIME [AdG-250189] and BioCHANGE [PoC-727440]. J.P. and M.E. acknowledge the financial support from the ERC Synergy grant ERC-SyG-2013-306 610028 IMBALANCE-P, Spanish CGL2016-79835-P and Catalan SGR-2017-1005. Long-term sampling of Calafuria rocky shores (L.B.-C.) has been supported by various E.U. projects, in addition to the University of Pisa and the Census of Marine Life. Natural Environmental Research Council: C.W. is grateful for the support of the Natural Environmental Research Council [grant number NE/ L002531/1]. The Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory is funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council. We thank the Atlantic Meridional Program (supported by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council through the Atlantic Meridional Transect consortium) and the L4 programme (funded under the U.K.

Funding Information:
European Research Council and EU: A.E.M., M.D. and F.M. are grateful for the support of the ERC grants BioTIME [AdG-250189] and BioCHANGE [PoC-727440]. J.P. and M.E. acknowledge the financial support from the ERC Synergy grant ERC-SyG-2013-306 610028 IMBALANCE-P, Spanish CGL2016-79835-P and Catalan SGR-2017-1005. Long-term sampling of Calafuria rocky shores (L.B.-C.) has been supported by various E.U. projects, in addition to the University of Pisa and the Census of Marine Life. Natural Environmental Research Council: C.W. is grateful for the support of the Natural Environmental Research Council [grant number NE/L002531/1]. The Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory is funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council. We thank the Atlantic Meridional Program (supported by the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council through the Atlantic Meridional Transect consortium) and the L4 programme (funded under the U.K. NERC Oceans 2025 programme as part of Theme 10, Sustained Observations). C.E.W. thanks the U.K.'s Natural Environment Research Council for funding the Western Channel Observatory's plankton time-series through the National Capability programme. National Science Foundation (NSF): S.K.M.E. acknowledges the U.S. National Science Foundation for funding data collection. S.R.S. was supported by NSF grant 1400911. The research of F.P.D. was funded by NSF grant DEB-1237733. D.A.K. thanks the National Science Foundation (most recently DEB-1456729) for their support. This material (R.D.H.) is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 9714103, 0632263, 0856516, and 1432277. K.D.W. thanks the U.S. Forest Service, National Science Foundation and Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Research (M.W., R.B.W. and C.B.) was supported by grants DEB-9705814, BSR-8811902, DEB 9411973, DEB 0080538, DEB 0218039, DEB 0620910, DEB 0963447, DEB-1546686 and DEB-129764 from the National Science Foundation to the Department of Environmental Science, University of Puerto Rico, and to the International Institute of Tropical Forestry USDA Forest Service, as part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Program. The U.S. Forest Service (Department of Agriculture) and the University of Puerto Rico gave additional support. J.E.D. thanks the U.S. National Science Foundation for support with grants OCE 95-21184, OCE-0099226, OCE 03–52343, OCE-0623874, OCE-1031061 and OCE-1336206. Data compilation and cleaning by A.H.H., B.S.E. and S.J.S. was funded by NSF grant DEB-1354563 to A.H.H. W.A.G. thanks the AON ITEX program (awards 1432982, 0856710 and 1504381). All research at the U.S. Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry is done in collaboration with the University of Puerto Rico. National Science Foundation (LTER): Jornada LTER, Research Site Manager – New Mexico State University. Datasets were provided by the Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project. Funding for these data was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant DEB-1235828). C.G. was supported under Cooperative Agreement #DEB-1440297, NTL LTER. Support for A.L.R. was provided under Cooperative Agreement #DEB-1440297, NTL-LTER. Data collection (E.H.S.) was supported by the National Science Foundation #DEB-1440297, NTL LTER. J.J. is grateful for funding to the H. J. Andrews Long-Term Ecological Research program from the U.S. National Science Foundation; U.S. Forest Service support of the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. V.H.R.-M. and R.R.T. thank NSF-Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological Research (FCE-LTER) program (grant nos DBI-0620409, DEB-9910514 and DEB-1237517). D.C.R. is grateful for support from the NSF's LTER Program. D.C.R. thanks the U.S. National Science Foundation for supporting the Santa Barbara Coastal Long-Term Ecological Research (SBC-LTER) program. Data (A.J.B. and R.C.) were provided by the Moorea Coral Reef Long-Term Ecological Research Program (OCE-0417412, OCE-1026851, OCE-1236905 and OCE-1637396). D.L. thanks the Jornada Basin LTER Program and the Sevilleta LTER Program. Data (J.J., M.N. and S.M.R.) were provided by the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest research program, funded by the NSF's LTER Program (DEB-1440409), U.S. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station and Oregon State University. The authors are grateful to the LTER program for the data they provide. This includes material based upon work supported under Cooperative Agreements DEB-0832652 and DEB-0936498, and by grants from the LTER including DEB-0620652 and DEB-1234162; further support was provided by the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve and the University of Minnesota. J.F.C. acknowledges funding from NSF (DEB-0823293) from the LTER to the Coweeta LTER Program at the University of Georgia. Other funding: L.H.A. was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (POPH/FSE SFRH/BD/90469/2012). A.R.K. is funded by Ciências sem Fronteiras and Coordenação de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil), Grant/Award Number: 1091/13-1. R.E. is grateful for support by Instituto Milenio de Oceanografía IC120019. A.H.B. is grateful for ARC Centre of Excellence (Grant CE0561432). R.P.V. is currently supported by a doctoral grant from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (SFRH/BD/84030/2012). J.J. is grateful for funding for data collection from NSERC Canada. J.R.G. is grateful for the support from CONICYT/FONDECYT no. 1160026, ICM PO5-002, CONICYT/FPB-23. A.P.M. is grateful for the support of FONDECYT Grants 11110351 and 1151094. A.A. and V.O. thank RSF (14-50-00029). E.P.W. is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's Data-Driven Discovery Initiative Grant GBMF4563. J.M.A. was supported by FI/FIAP (1998FI-00596) and BE (2001BEAI200208) fellowships from the Catalan Government (DURSI) during the fieldwork and by a MECD-Post-doctoral fellowship (EX2002-0022), a Marie Curie Individual Fellowship (QLK5-CT2002-51518) and Marie Curie project MARIBA (MERG-CT-2004-022065) afterwards. A.F. receives a scholarship from CNPq (306170/2015-9); G.D. receives a scholarship from FAPESP (2015/10714-6); projects to collect data received financial support from FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation) (2015/06743-0, 2008/10049-9), CNPq (475434/2010-2) and DFG (German Research Foundation, Project PF 120/10-2). F.L. acknowledges support from EU CLIMOOR ENV4-CT97–0694, VULCAN EVK2-CT-2000-00094), Spanish REN2000-0278/CCI and REN2001-003/GLO, and Catalonian AGAUR 2014 SGR 453. Y.R.S. is grateful for funding from FUNDECT, CNPq. F.R.S. is grateful for the support of the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, Proc. 2013/50714-0). D.A.K. is grateful for the support of FONDECYT (most recently, no. 1070808). E.L. acknowledges funding from NSERC and logistical support from Polar Continental Shelf Program. P.H. is grateful for the support of FONDECYT no. 1130511. G.B.G.S. and M.V. thank the staff who assisted in the field and laboratory research from the Laboratory of Fishery Biology and Technology. This study was part of the programme ‘Environmental Assessment of Guanabara Bay’ coordinated and funded by CENPES – PETROBRAS, which has given permission for the publication of the results. This study was also supported by the Long Term Ecological Programme (PELD programme – CNPq 403809/2012-6) and by FAPERJ (Thematic Programme, process E-26/110.114/2013). G.B.G.S. was funded by CAPES/Brazil. C.M. is grateful for the support of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the German Research Foundation (DFG). H.B. and U.J. acknowledge the support of sDiv, the Synthesis Centre of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig. C.F.J.M., R.R. and A.L.-B. acknowledge funding from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/BIA-BIC/111184/2009, SFRH/BD/80488/2011 and PD/BD/52597/2014, respectively). F.Z.F. was funded by CAPES/Brazil. T.J.W. acknowledges support from the New Zealand Department of Conservation. General acknowledgments: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology analyses were supported by the University of St Andrews Bioinformatics Unit, which is funded by a Wellcome Trust ISSF award (grant 105621/Z/14/Z). We would like to acknowledge Richard Osman for his work in the Woods Hole study, and the Smithsonian Atherton Seidell Fund, which provides funds within the Smithsonian to make old studies and publications more available. Any use of trade, firm or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. This study (P.B.) was performed under the auspices of Utah State University IACUC protocol number 1539. L.V.V. thanks Earthwatch Institute and their volunteers. R.A.D. and T.S.D. thank the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority for the financial and logistical support, without which their reptile monitoring project would not be possible. R.S.S. and G.E. thank the Reef Life Survey volunteer divers. P.H. thanks Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). F.H. acknowledges the EWHALE laboratory, Biology and Wildlife Department, Institute of Arctic Biology. H.K. thanks the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries. A.H. is supported by the Research Council of Norway. J.S. thanks the many researchers and field assistants who over the years contributed to the collection and curation of data for the studies presented in this database. S.K.C. thanks the City of Boulder Department of Open Space and Mountain Parks. N.A. thanks Karnataka Forest Department and IFP staff Messrs. S. Aravajy, S. Ramalingam, N. Barathan, G. Orukaimani, G. Jayapalan, K. Anthapa Gowda, Obbaya Gowda and Manoj Gowda. M.L. and J.M.A. wish to thank all participants in the MEDITS series cruises on board R/V Cornide de Saavedra, both scientists and crew (Spanish Institute of Oceanography), for all their help and support, and especially Pere Abelló and Luis Gil de Sola. Thanks to Daniel Oro and the Population Ecology research team at the Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA, CSIC-UIB). M.L. was supported by a fellowship of Conselleria de Innovació, Hisenda i Economia (Govern de les Illes Balears). R.K., D.P. and J.M. acknowledge SOTEAG (Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group) for providing access to the dataset. We thank SOTEAG (Shetland Oil Terminal Advisory group) for providing data from the long term rocky shore monitoring programme after dataset. We thank Jake Goheen and Rob Pringle for providing data from the UHURU herbivore-exclusion experiment in central Kenya. J.S.M. thanks the Australian Research Council. J.S.M. thanks the staff of Lizard Island Research Station. F.P. would like to thank the Wasserversorgung Zurich for collecting and allowing access to the data. Data (C.H.D.) was sourced from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS); IMOS is a national collaborative research infrastructure, supported by the Australian Government. J.M.A. would like to thank the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO), Pere Abelló, Luis Gil de Sola and Daniel Oro. M.T.Z.T. thanks Dr Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho. I.H.M.-S. thanks the Herschel Island-Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park management and, in particular, Cameron D. Eckert, Catherine Kennedy, Dorothy Cooley and Jill F. Johnstone for establishing the ITEX protocols for plant composition monitoring on Qikiqtaruk. We thank the Herschel Island-Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park rangers for data collection logistical support, including in particular Richard Gordon, Edward McLeod, Sam McLeod, Ricky Joe, Paden Lennie, Deon Arey and LeeJohn Meyook. We thank the researchers and field assistants who helped with data collection, including Haydn Thomas, Sandra Angers-Blondie, Jakob Assmann, Meagan Grabowski, Catherine Henry, Annika Trimble, Louise Beveridge, Clara Flintrop, Santeri Lehtonen, Joe Boyle, John Godlee and Eleanor Walker. Funding was provided by the Yukon Government Herschel Island-Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park and the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council ShrubTundra Grant NE/M016323/1. We thank the Inuvialuit People for the opportunity to conduct research on their traditional lands. L.H. and L.S.C. are grateful for the support of IPY, Memorial University and ArcticNet for funding. T.J.C. thanks the LIRS Trimodal Mapping Study. M.H. thanks the staff of Lizard Island Research Station. R.R.S. would like to thank E. E. de Assis, Santa Genebra and E. E. Caetetus and acknowledges funding from FAPESP (projetos temáticos: 1999/09635-0 and 2013/50718-5) and CNPq (Processo: 561897/2010). F.C. thanks SIBELCO Ltda. of Brazil for the logistic support in the accomplishment of the field work. We acknowledge the thousands of U.S. and Canadian volunteers who annually perform the North American Breeding Bird survey, as well as those who manage the program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The term ‘Anthropocene’ is not formally recognized by the USGS as a description of geological time. We use it here informally. We hope that data providers will continue to share their data (and any new updates) with OBIS and GBIF and encourage them to correct any errors identified by BioTIME. D.A., D.J., K.K., T.V. acknowledges support from Czech Science Foundation, project No. 16-18022S and from Czech Ministry of Environment, project No. 170368. We thank Jan Wittoeck and other colleagues who assisted in the sampling and compilation of the macrobenthic data and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office who funded MACROBEL through the programme ‘Sustainable management of the North Sea’ (SPSD I MN/02/96). M.B., A.J., K.P., J.S. received financial support from internal funds of University of Lódź. W.R.F. thanks the National Science Foundation for support through award OPP-1440435. N.V. thanks CONICYT grants FONDECYT 1141037 and FONDAP 15150003 (IDEAL).

Funding Information:
European Research Council and EU, Grant/ Award Number: AdG-250189, PoC-727440 and ERC-SyG-2013-610028; Natural Environmental Research Council, Grant/Award Number: NE/L002531/1; National Science Foundation, Grant/Award Number: DEB-1237733, DEB-1456729, 9714103, 0632263, 0856516, 1432277, DEB-9705814, BSR-8811902, DEB 9411973, DEB 0080538, DEB 0218039, DEB 0620910, DEB 0963447, DEB-1546686, DEB-129764, OCE 95-21184, OCE-

Funding Information:
0099226, OCE 03-52343, OCE-0623874, OCE-1031061, OCE-1336206 and DEB- 1354563; National Science Foundation (LTER) , Grant/Award Number: DEB- 1235828, DEB-1440297, DBI-0620409, DEB-9910514, DEB-1237517, OCE- 0417412, OCE-1026851, OCE-1236905, OCE-1637396, DEB 1440409, DEB- 0832652, DEB-0936498, DEB-0620652, DEB-1234162 and DEB-0823293; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Grant/Award Number: POPH/FSE SFRH/ BD/90469/2012, SFRH/BD/84030/2012, PTDC/BIA-BIC/111184/2009; SFRH/BD/ 80488/2011 and PD/BD/52597/2014; Ciência sem Fronteiras/CAPES, Grant/ Award Number: 1091/13-1; Instituto Mile-nio de Oceanografía, Grant/Award Number: IC120019; ARC Centre of Excellence, Grant/Award Number: CE0561432; NSERC Canada; CONICYT/FONDECYT, Grant/ Award Number: 1160026, ICM PO5-002, CONICYT/FONDECYT, 11110351, 1151094, 1070808 and 1130511; RSF, Grant/Award Number: 14-50-00029; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Grant/ Award Number: GBMF4563; Catalan Government; Marie Curie Individual Fellowship, Grant/Award Number: QLK5-CT2002-51518 and MERG-CT-2004-022065; CNPq, Grant/Award Number: 306170/ 2015-9, 475434/2010-2, 403809/2012-6 and 561897/2010; FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation), Grant/Award Number: 2015/10714-6, 2015/06743-0, 2008/ 10049-9, 2013/50714-0 and 1999/09635-0 e 2013/50718-5; EU CLIMOOR, Grant/ Award Number: ENV4-CT97-0694; VULCAN, Grant/Award Number: EVK2-CT-2000-00094; Spanish, Grant/Award Number: REN2000-0278/CCI, REN2001-003/ GLO and CGL2016-79835-P; Catalan, Grant/Award Number: AGAUR SGR-2014-453 and SGR-2017-1005; DFG, Grant/ Award Number: 120/10-2; Polar Continental Shelf Program; CENPES – PETROBRAS; FAPERJ, Grant/Award Number: E-26/ 110.114/2013; German Academic Exchange Service; sDiv; iDiv; New Zealand Department of Conservation; Wellcome Trust, Grant/Award Number: 105621/Z/ 14/Z; Smithsonian Atherton Seidell Fund; Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority; Research Council of Norway; Conselleria de Innovació, Hisenda i Economia; Yukon Government Herschel Island-Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park; UK Natural Environment Research Council ShrubTundra Grant, Grant/Award Number: NE/M016323/1; IPY; Memorial University; ArcticNet. DOI: 10.13039/ 50110000027. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research in the Tropics NWO, grant W84-194. Ciências sem Fronteiras and Coordenação de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil), Grant/Award Number: 1091/13-1. National Science foundation (LTER), Award Number: OCE-9982105, OCE-0620276, OCE-1232779.

Funding Information:
FCT - SFRH / BPD / 82259 / 2011. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/State Wildlife federal grant number T-15. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (CE140100020). Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT110100609. M.B., A.J., K.P., J.S. received financial support from internal funds of University of Lódź. NSF DEB 1353139. Catalan Government fellowships (DURSI): 1998FI-00596, 2001BEAI200208, MECD Post-doctoral fellowship EX2002-0022. National Science Foundation Award OPP-1440435. FONDECYT 1141037 and FON-DAP 15150003 (IDEAL). CNPq Grant 306595-2014-1

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • global
  • spatial
  • species richness
  • temporal
  • turnover

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